SAMHAIN

BY: Lynn Reed

Halloween stems from the Celtic and Christian traditions.
While it has always been a morbid, but spooky celebration, it has changed a bunch over the centuries. The tradition began with the Celtic festival of Samhain with our ancestors, lighting bonfires and wear costumes to ward off ghosts. We would do this to blend in with any other spirits that came to haunt the All Hallows Eve, the only day a year they were allowed out to go run free. The history of Halloween goes back to a pagan festival called Samhain. The pagan and Christian occasions hadn’t always been back to back, though. Up until the 7th century, All Hallow’s Eve was on May 13. Maybe to offset the occasion with a religious celebration, Pope Boniface IV decided to change the observance to its date of November 1 date. Hundreds of years ago, people would dress up as saints and would go from door to door, which is the origin of Halloween costumes and trick-or-treating.

November 1 is All Saints’ Day, a Christian feast dedicated to celebrating the departed, and all saints. In Christian beliefs, people start celebrating major Holy Day feasts the night before it happens. Halloween’s beginnings are in the Catholic, and Christian religions. The Catholic holiday, All Hallow’s Eve, means the night before All Saint’s Day. Halloween is an antique way of saying the night before All Saints’ Day also called Hallowmas or All Hallows’ Day.

Hallows’ Eve, as it’s known by to, made its way to the United States by European immigrants in the 1800s and brought the witch’s costumes with it. With no scientific evidence, we could conclude that at least one out of four people has dressed up like the hooked-nose, broom riding, cauldron-stirring, wart-faced caricature at least one time in their Halloween experience.

Halloween is on October 31 because the ancient Gaelic festival of Samhain was considered the earliest known root of Halloween, occurred on this day. It marked a turning point in the time of year when the seasons changed. More important than that, observers believed the realms between the physical world and the spiritual world became extremely thin and was enabling them to connect with our ancient ancestors. This is shared by other cultures as well. Similar ideas are mentioned at Yom Kippur, a Jewish holiday. This occurs in October, also involves prayers for the ancient ancestors. This is also where Halloween got its “haunted” connotations.

Samhain has a lot of ritualistic ceremonies and rites to be able to connect with the spirits, as the Celts were polytheistic. While there isn’t a lot of information known about the ceremonies, others think the Celts celebrated in a costume made from simple animal hide from wildlife skin from a deer and such, as a disguise from the spirits, special feasts were enjoyed, and lanterns were made by hollowing out gourds; With this being done it started the carving of pumpkins and dropping in a lit candle. Over time, as Christianity took over, the pagan undertones of the holiday became less and less.

Halloween dates back at least more than 2,100 years. A time when Celtics celebrated New Year’s Day, or Samhain, As legend tells it, that the day before, or Samhain eve, Halloween day, faery and demon spirits would appear, as they traveled to the afterlife. Celts dressed in costumes to ward off the evil spirits and tap into the souls of their ancestry. Have you ever wonder why the broomsticks were a witch’s tool? Brooms were not technically meant for flying. In Celtic times, they had a bigger more mundane purpose. It was used to clean an area before a healing ritual could be carried out forthwith.

Halloween and witches will always be linked together just as roses and chocolate candies have been. Witches will always be one of Halloween’s favorite personifications for costume dress-ups as long as there are kids going trick or treating. Hundreds of years ago, people would dress up as saints and would go from door to door, which is the origin of Halloween costumes and trick-or-treating. Knowing the appreciation of the historical value of witches throughout history will definitely increase your Samhain enjoyment this year. One day a year we can be the way we are, and dress the way we want, and are comfortable doing so, showing out as a witch, blending with the background, and no one has a clue, is a wonderful breath of fresh air. Halloween has been linked to Samhain, It is the Celtic festival of the summer’s end celebrated in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man.

This century witch costumes have changed dramatically, and not many people will dress up as the ugly, old, wart-nosed witchs that are thought of in the myths, legends, and folklore. The women or better said, the witch of today, enjoy being a soft character that is, mystical character or creature. Today’s witch likes dressing up as faer folks or as the stereotypical Hollywood wiggle your nose, I dream of Jeanie witch. For the most part, who wouldn’t? It appears to be a fun way of being able to come out of the closet for most, even if it’s for one night. Go for it, have fun, entertain it. It’s a very pleasing and attractive look about today’ witch as well and so easily slipped by the Christian family members without a second thought. A witch costume with a sexy and feminine burst will put the witch in a standstill with a modern spin that most women like to embrace.

As we are all aware, Halloween is on the last day of October, but here’s some of you might not know, The word itself derives from “Hallowed Evening,” and was known by early Europeans celebrating as All Hallows’ Eve. All Hallows’ Eve — October 31st, and All Saints’ Day—November 1st, both paid respect to the saints. The name ended up getting shortened to “Halloween,”. Hallows means saints.

Drag queens started dressing up for Halloween in skimpy outfits in the 1970s. Halloween parade started in Greenwich Village in 1973 and was copied in Castro and West Hollywood, retailers were selling suggestive costumes. From digging around and hunting for old pictures and finding images of enchanting witches riding those broomsticks started in the 1910s, it looks like witches weren’t so much Salem any more but were much earlier than the disco era.

The mystical rituals of earlier times evolved into a more mediocre way of having fun and playing games. For example, then the heavy understanding of contacting the ancestors was replaced with the more simplistic idea of telling the future. One game was bobbing for apples, for example, became as popular as a fortune-telling game on All Hallows’ Eve. Apples would be used to select and represent all of a lady’s corners, and the guy—er, apple—she bit into would represent her husband in the future and Halloween was used as a matchmaking prop for young women in the 19th century.

All Hallows’ Eve ritual was mirror-gazing, this became a popular thing as people would hope to have a vision of their future by looking into the mirror. Party favors were being given out during earlier times such as fortune cookies and such. There were messages written on pieces of paper with milk, the notes were folded up then put into walnut shells. The shells would then be heated on a fire, which would cause the milk to brown making the message visible for the receiving client. People would make offerings of food to get on the good side of these spirits and departed ancestors, according to the Mirror.

Many people dress up in costumes as saints and would sing hymns or verses going from door to door. Children would go from door to door asking for what’s called”soul cakes,” which is like a biscuit. This was derived from the “All Souls Day holiday, Soul cakes on November 2. eventually this was a part of Halloween night and the basic concept evolved into trick-or-treating. The candy-grabbing concept also started in the U.S. around the early part to the mid-1900s, families would provide treats to children thinking they wouldn’t do any holiday jokes.

Costumes started evolving, from earnest costumes as saints, like most things as time goes, just bled out of popularity. Then a young Scottish and Irish guy decided to start pulling jokes come up with the idea to dress up in scary-looking costumes and did this as a way to scare neighbors and passer Byers. An act that simply caused a turning point in costumes and the traditional actions in Samhain. Halloween costumes became scary, spooky, funny, and creative all at the same time.

Halloween is still a very popular holiday in America today. Although Samhain just about didn’t make it across the Atlantic. The Puritans didn’t agree with the holiday’s pagan roots and refused to participate in the celebrations. When the Irish and Scottish immigrants started arriving in America, the greater numbers, the holiday came back. The very first American colonial Halloween celebration showed large public parties to commemorate the upcoming harvest, tell ghost stories and sing, and dance.

STONEHENGE

In 1915 the original owners put the Stonehenge crescent up for auction. The Antrobus family looked after it for years, since the beginning of the 19TH century. Cecil and Mary Chubb purchased it at UKD 6,000 and gave it to the nation on October 26th, 1918. The chief executive of the English heritage Mayor, says that the ruin went from being neglected to being a national treasure. Several ruins had fallen and become twisted up over the years of neglect. The English government seeing this they had several different steps of reconstruction and repair for Stonehenge, and they were uprighted in the reconstruction time. There were two different periods that repairs were made to Stonehenge. One was from 1919 to1921 and the second one was from the 1950s to the 1960s. Mrs. Chubb inherited UKD 100,000 which is what was used to purchase the Stonehenge and the land. Today 6,000 UKD would equal eight million UK dollars. Mrs. Chubbs was a major factor in the purchase of the Stonehenge. There is a researcher for a college called The West of England College and had been staying abreast of the Chubbs and was documenting their life. Mr. Chubbs had been deemed Knight just a year after giving the Stonehenge to the nation. The couple was called Sir Cecil and Lady Chubb. For years, the archaeologist has been stumped on the mysterious powers the stone henge has. It took fifteen hundred years to get built and completed. The stone henge is in southern England. There are approximately one-hundred humungous stones standing upright in a crescent. At one point in time, this was used as a burial grounds. For centuries, no one has been able to find a definitive answer to what another purpose this place is used for. It has really confused people for hundreds of years because the outer ring is made of the sandstone that came from nearby quarries, the inner ring is blue stones, these came from Preseli Hills in Wales, two hundred miles from where the Stonehenge landmark resides at Salisbury Plains. Since the 1980s, over one hundred million people have come to see the Stonehenge monumental landmark. The only thing that anyone can figure out is that they were used for ceremonials and rituals and for winter and summer solace to celebrate the shortest and longest days of the year. Hundreds and hundreds come to this celebration every year. Today as of 2020 no one can get close to them due to tourists defacing and vandalizing the druidic stones. In 1977, they were sectioned off because all the physical touching was creating a lot of deterioration. The first part of them was built no earlier than five thousand years ago but could have been even longer than that. Archaeologists feel the prehistoric rune was built up in multiple stages. To help the stones to stand there was a deep hole or ditch dug to support the thousands of tons of stones weight back in this era. The holes were named after John Aubrey, the guy who discovered them, and at one time they may have held a ring of lumber posts around them. Hundreds of years later after this landmark uprising, it is believed that that the boulders carried eighty blue stones in them and was brought up into a crescent-shaped standing position. There are only forty-three left standing today. The third part of this uprising happened around two hundred BC. There was a crescent ring set up from Sarsen sandstone slabs. Some were put together in tree piece structural builds called tri-Lithions that stand in the center of the stone henge. Approximately fifty can be seen on the historical site and more than that may have been there at one time or another. The work with the blue stone may have continued through roughly the 1600s and they had been moved around multiple times. The largest stone henge weighs more than forty tons, stands up to twenty-four feet in height, and came about twenty-five miles north of the memorial site and was moved by sleds and ropes. Some were found in the areas the archaeologist started digging in. Stonehenge site is a world heritage site jumping in with other UK sites is the Giants Cause Way Canterbury Cathedral and Lake District. This is now a threatening issue. There has been talking of putting in a three KM tunnel along the side of the stones. There was a dispute on this and the problem is it would disturb the grounds and cause the Stonehenge to crumble and fall due to the vibrations of the ground while the construction work was being done. The highways department says it would restore the tranquil environment setting of the historical site. Archaeologists argue it would cause imminent damage to the historical landmarks, so now UNESCO wants to put in a bypass. With all the arguing there is an undesirable chance that they will pull the world heritage status. Stonehenge is a Unesco world heritage site and is not legally protected as an official ancient monument and has become the property of the Crown. It belongs to the royal family king and queen and the land belongs to the national trust. The iron age was the last time Stonehenge was used as a burial grounds. There is proven documentation to there being spiritual activity attached to all the Stonehenge sites. It is also believed that it is linked to the heavenly divine workings. For example, the equinox or eclipse. There are ancient tales of this being related to the English folklore. There are over 400 burial mounds that surround the Stonehenge crescent and most people get creepy feelings from this area. Architects and others are completely uncertain of the exact purpose of what Stonehenge sites were used for. At one time we are certain it was used for burial grounds but some think it was used for royalty, others think Monks, Druids, and Vikings. What has been established is that it was used as a very important establishment for thousands of years. It’s also unknown as to why Britians went to Salisbury Plains in particular to build it and why the Stonehenge was continued to be built. We do know at one point it was a burial site but was also thought of being used for astronomy purposes. Other thoughts are it is used for ceremonial rituals or a memorial to honor to connect to the ancient ancestors. I believe it is for connection rituals to our ancient ancestors because of all the reported sightings at the American Stonehenge location. Some believe that people did not have the slightest clue of astrology or any knowledge of zodiacs back in that era. With this being said, many believe it was used for ceremonial and ritual purposes back then. They also believe the England fog and cloud coverage would prevent them from being able to use it as it would block the view. In the time these were built the skies and air would be clean of pollutions. There is also the possibility of it being used as a healing grounds because the corps that were unburied shown visible signs of illness, scars, wounds, and injuries. If this is the case, what are the odds and possibilities that it was used as a healing and burial sight for any of the Knights Templar? The other reason that its thought of as a healing grounds is because the blue stone that is in the boulder hold healing properties. There is also a Stonehenge in Salem and New Hampshire. No one knows who built these or why it was left abandoned. America’s Stonehenge has always been a very spiritual location. This location is up on Mystory Hill. It is in the far back of the woods and is a self-tour site. The 4,000-year-old Megalith location is made like a maze with trails of stone chambers. This specific location has an Oracle chamber, an operating observatory, a sacrificial altar, and a burial chamber. This location is open to the public year-round and the metaphysical and the paranormal activity at this site is practically impossible to ignore. Many tourists have reported things like they felt they were being watched and there was not anyone around. They would see a pair of red fiery glowing eyes glaring at them from a short distance. Neighbors can see strange lights and hear odd noises coming from within the woods late at night. An employee has seen a stone turn into an old woman and starts walking towards her across the parking lot. Makes you wonder if there are bodies hidden from within the stones or they have attached themselves to the stones even. Anyone who has stolen a stone from the grounds has very promptly returned it to the site. The visitors say that they watched the stone turn into a 9 foot Native Indian within their home. The sightings that have been reported are virtually endless. When visitors come to the site they report seeing bright blue energy and some have gotten pictures of this. They complain and report coffee going cold fast, batteries draining, and going dead. Empaths and mediums have gone to the site to investigate and report that there are hundreds of free reign spirits. They have been not been able to find out if its Druids, Vikings, Native Indians, Monks, but with as much history the Stonehenge has and the years that they go back, it could be a mix of all.

BY: Lynn Reed

THANATOS

Thantos is the substantiate of death and is known as a Greek God as well. In Greek mythology, he is known as the grim reaper, son of Nyx, and Hypnos, Lord of Sleep, is Thanatos’ twin brother. they are constant companions, and Thantos has no mercy, he is relentless, He believes all mundane should and will eventually die. It is believed that he is the only one that will walk you to the underworld to Hades once your dead. Sometimes people confused him with Hades, the king of the underworld. The only ones who have defeated death were Heracles and Sisyphus. Thanatos is a gentle deity of death, with a gentle touch. His sisters, on the other hand, are the ones of violent deaths.

Euripides explains Thanatos is walking among people wearing a black robe and carrying a sword. Thanatos has been seen as a winged young man, a bearded, winged older man, and a winged serpent. Thanatos’ wings are on his back. Hypnos and Thanatos are often seen together. Many think he lives in the Underworld in return would make him a Chthonic deity. He is also tied to the Morai, better known as the fates. Now, It is uncommon to come across a person who worships him in modern witchcraft, paganism, and Hellenic Polytheism, but he is considered a negative deity who shouldn’t be played with.

Since Thantos is a death deity and considered a Chthonic, items, and tools like skulls and bones would be a really good obvious symbolism to represent him. You could also dig deeper with images of scythes and swords and the sword should be sheathed. Inverted torches, poppy flowers, butterflies, and snakes are sentimental things to Thanatos and things more closely related to death are animals such as ravens, crows, grave dirt, and a tombstone, rosewood thorny branch, representing the beauty and harshness of death.


Cypress, poppies, poppy seeds, any kind of grave rubbings, graveyard dirt, snake skins, snakes, butterflies, and black stones but more favored are obsidian and onyx, any grim reaper symbolism, skulls or bones collected, preferably humanely, black, purple or red candles, bitter foods and drinks wine included, Apothic Dark is his favorite, cigars, black, prefers coffee and tea to be served and offered black, dark chocolate, no sugar or honey, this deity isn’t favorable to sweet things at all you may disgrace him if offered. He enjoys drawings, paintings, poetry, and music and does not like cruelty, forsakes, pigheadedness, cowards, confusion, he doesn’t like anyone who tries to buy him out or negotiate deals with him, or anyone who would keep him from his responsibilities and materialism

Thanatos is typically asexual, perhaps caused by the trauma of robbing the first human he was fascinated with by the kiss of life. Due to this, there is no way for him to have a lover without taking their life and he is usually responsible enough to silence his desires for the welfare of others. While he can be intimate with a shadow, he usually doesn’t perform in lust action since he finds little satisfaction from it. Whereas gender is concerned he doesn’t discriminate, he has more interest in males having slightly more male than female lovers within the span of his life. It is uncommon for him to have a lover and he doesn’t know love with the same intensity others have had the pleasure of knowing it.

Thanatos is one of duty first and, just a tool of The Fates he collects. He doesn’t pass judgment nor discriminates against any soul he collects. He does however prepare himself for the reaction of the soul he has come to collect. Before he goes to do anything he’s wanting to do, most of the time when he is doing something he wants to do, he’s running on autopilot to perform his function. Thanatos has a few weapons one is an amulet he wears as a necklace, a sword, two daggers, and a scythe, he doesn’t keep them with him to collect the souls of those who have passed but to defend himself from ones who would attack him or souls that would elude him. The amulet was a gift from his mom given to him when he was a kid and can hide one god from another god. The Darkness gifted him with his sword when he came of age and rumor of wars began. The two daggers were gifts from Hades when The Olympian dynasty began and the Stygians came under their rule, and the daggers were for ceremonial purposes that were to cut a lock of hair for the dedication of the living sacrifice, adding to the wealth and honor of Hades. The scythe stays in Thanatos’ closet and goes unused now. It was a key to a door better left shut. This was where Thanatos used to temporarily hide souls before things were more structured.

When Thanatos was young he worked for no one but Fate, then other gods wanted to make more and have more power over something that already existed and caused battles and wars. After all the wars, a new empire came for death to serve. This being said, it was the will of Fate, he didn’t debate this. Since then he has continued to collect those that were fated to death, he collected their souls on Earth and delivered them to the banks of Styx where they make their afterlife journey once the judgment was passed.

He was loyal and dedicated to three Olympian kings, before them, he remains first, a servant of Fate. He has remained calm since the coup and has become bitter and tried to keep the Underworld denizens from being too hasty one way or another until they found out more information on things.

He would be good to work with on a spiritual level. Thanatos has been known for his dark sense of humor, and strict father roll, and his continuous wisdom. If you want to learn about death on a physical aspect or just the concept of death and rebirth, then He may be the one you need to reach out to. He will guide you to reflect on past thoughts, words, routines, and actions, as well as “kill” the negativities of everyday life that do not serve you anymore as a person in general. He teaches patience, wisdom, and understanding, If you make an unnecessary comment, and if I deal with a situation in a ‘less than adult’ type of way, he will have you to rethink what was said and ask if that was the appropriate response. A sort of thing before you speak lesson, he also will pipe up and say “Was that necessary? Do you feel any better about that? If I deal with a situation in a less than an adult way, he will tell me to rethink what was said and ask if that was the appropriate response. Thanatos is a lesson teacher, he may be an intimidating deity at first, but he is worth all the smacks on the hands and lectures when you see the lessons you have learned from him.

Thantos is invoked by the souls that wish to have a painless and peaceful death. His tools are a sword or an inverted torch. He has appeared to people with both. The favorite color is black, purple, and red. His favorite herbs and flowers are poppies, willow, pomegranate, birch, mandrake, mugwort, African violets. His favorite animals is a snake and butterfly, the best offering for Thantos is Poppies, black candles, and any kind of image that represents Thantos. Colors: black, purple, red. Friday and Saturday are his favorite days of the week. The lunar moon phase is the dark moon haha go figure right. The most favored incense is Opium, Wisteria, Musk, Myrrh, Black Blossom. Raven and crow feathers, Sabbats are Mabon & Samhain. The practices are death, witchery, and ancestor, honor, Spirit communication, and shadow Magick. He also likes tobacco and cigars, and rum or brandy.

The mundane world doesn’t usually see him because he is typically physically between worlds, so they don’t see him until they are at the death gate. He normally goes anywhere and does anything on the mortal plane without being noticed.

Thanatos is one of the oldest immortal Gods and maintains a youthful and androgynous appearance. He is thin and toned underneath his black cloak and has a solid body when occupying the same metaphysical space as others. Normally when he is between worlds he is transparent. He is tall, he is 6′ 3, and towers over most people in the mundane world. His wings are massive and are usually hidden under his black cloak when he is in the Underworld. He can change or hide his wings. The wings change according to the shapeshift role he has when he approaches a soul he has come to collect. He can change them to an angelic set of wings, soft when he changes his role of a gentle and comforting Death or to a demonic and evil to a cold and cruel Death. He shapes shifts according to how the soul he has come to collect perceives him, positive or negative, determined by the person’s aura when they are passing. Thanatos’ lips are of a blue hue at times and look like he has on blue lipstick. this is the actual color of his lips showing how cold Death is at times, although his lips can change to a warmer color depending on if he is warmed by some external source.

BY: Lynn Reed

THORE

Thor in Old English is Thunor and in German, it is Donar, either way, both mean thunder. He is one of the most famous Norse deities. Thors’ position is a protector, unlike his father Odin. He protects a multitude of things. He”s the defender of Aesir Pantheons, devotees, spirits, patron of heroes, rulers, shaman, magicians, Lord of masses, homes, land, laws, civilization, and communities. He protects against chaos and disasters. He will disguise himself as a camellia does, he is the guardian of love, families, and marriage in Germany, he also protects the dead and aids in the assistance of travelers passing through. He holds power over the earth’s fertility and abundance. He controls the quantity of rain and the spirit of the oak forest that spreads through Europe

He slams down his almighty hammer named Mjollnir on the sacred places of magical workings and worship and events. When he does this, he is purging the sacred place of any spirits to cleanse and purify these for any events that may be taking place. He is summonsed to protect against fire and lightning. when lightning hits an oak tree, it explodes, not catches fire. Which was the first creation of heat and a source of warmth for mankind? This was the first item used to make barriers for a fire and to create a controlled fire since oak doesn’t burn easily.

Thor was always watching the earth and protecting the innocent and pure of heart. Whenever there is a bigger person or business targeting you(res), call upon Thor. He doesn’t withstand anyone being bullied. When it comes to protecting the innocent, he is brutal. If one possesses a tainted heart or life in any way, he will use his loyal Mjollnir to cleanse and purify that person over and over until the individual is on the path they should be on. Even though these types of things bother him, he loves vodka, even with his love of vodka he will accept any type of alcoholic drink and any other offerings as long as it’s given with respect and pure heart.

Thor is the strongest of all Norse gods but not the brightest crayon in the box. When it came to the giants, he had a bad temperament. As soon as they started antagonizing him and picked on him, he lost his cool, he became enraged and uncontrollable. He would start fighting them and hitting the giants over the head with his hammer. Making them tremble with fear and cower to him. Thor, being Thorabout created a war with the giants and caused Odin to strip him of his powers and banish him from the realms of the earth. Thor in the long run was reinstated to Asgard and heled the throne as King.

Thor was known as a huge man, he has red hair and a red beard with a glowing flaming eye. He also had a kind heart contradictory to his outward appearance. Thor was always fair,r firm, consistent, predictable, and dependable.

There are many things in place as attributions to him.
Loves vodka
Mjollnir- his hammer and a mini hammer as a necklace pendant, this represents iron clad gloves.
Sif is his consort
Thursday is the day designated to him as “Thors-day
His tree is the oak, mountain ash, and hazel
Iron is the metal
His color is red
the element is fire
The designated rune is the Thurisaz- represents force and will
His animal representation is the mountain horned goat.
He is honored near the sacred groves and including the one near Dublin
He is a highly respected member of the Viking courts in Venezuela and his name id Mr. Barbaro
He is compared to the Greek god Zeus and is over fertility, strength, Hallowing (purging of spirits, emptying)

BY: Lynn Reed

ATHENA

BY: LYNN REED

Athena is a Greek patron Goddess of Athens. Athens inherited the name from Athene, not the other way around. Athena has a much different spelling to her name. Athene, Athena, and Athina. In Roam, she is called Minerva. Athena means “Mind of God” and “Divine Intelligence”.

She is the Goddess over wisdom, philosophy, strategic warfare, handcrafts, strategy, horses, vehicles, courage, inspiration, civilization, personal strengths, her favorite craft is weaving. She is the protector of clever loyal women and heroic men.

Zeus’s wife Metis was the Goddess of wisdom. An oracle warned Zeus that a child born of this marriage will be of more and greater stature than he is. With the fear of a son being born and greater than he is, Zeus swallows his wife Metis. while she was inside Zeus, Metis began constructing a helmet of armor and a robe for her unborn daughter. With all the banging and clanging around it caused Zeus to have a headache so excruciating he couldn’t bear it any longer. He started calling upon other Gods for help. His son, Hephaestus, split his head open, and outcomes Athena grew, with robe and helmet on.

The goddess of was and wisdom, she would normally end up in Greek legends helping numerous heroes. Hercules, Odysseus, and Jason, all of whom received help from Athena. In classic myths, Athena didn’t take any lovers and was referred to as the virgin or Athena Parthenos. This is how the Parthenos temple in Greece got the name.

The cult of Athena came early on, she had many arguments with Poseidon, her uncle, (God of the Sea). Athena and Poseidon both loved a town off the coast of Greece. They both also claimed possession of this coastal city, This went on for a while and decided on a resolution to whom was going to take possession of this coastal city. They decided whoever could give this coastal city the best gift would steak claim, be Patron of this coastal city.

Athena and Poseidon went uptown to Acropolis. Poseidon struck the side of a cliff with his trident and up popped a water spring, this impressed the citizens of Greece. The spring was of saltwater and didn’t serve many purposes.

Athena then provided the town with an olive tree that provided the townspeople with olive oil, food, and wood for the winter months to stay warm. With a grateful heart, the townspeople gave the named Athens in honor of Athena. Every year at springtime, there is a festival held to celebrate Athena. During this time Altars and statues are cleansed. Even today, there are still people in Greece that give offerings to Athena in the spring

Shes displayed with her companion, Nike Gorgon.
A shield made of goatskin displaying Nike Gorgons head on it.
Being the goddess of wisdom, she is normally shown with an owl.

There are several other mythological history stories on Athena, one holds the name Homer. Athena is the goddess of wisdom, she often helps other warriors make sound and intelligent decisions that lead to victory. With this in mind, Homer wrote a hymn in honor of Athena. The hymn goes as follows:

” I begin to sing of Pallas Athena, the glorious goddess. Bright-eyed, inventive, unbending of heart, a pure virgin. Savior of cities, courageous tritogeneia, From his awful head, wise Zeus him-self bore her, arrayed in warlike arms of flashing gold, and awe seized all the gods as they gazed, but Athena sprang quickly from the immortal head and stood before Zeus who holds the aegis shaking a sharp spear: great Olympus began to reel horribly at the might of grey eye goddess and earth round about cried fearfully and the sea was moved and tossed with dark waves while foam burst forth suddenly the bright son of Hyperion stopped his swift-footed horse along while until the maiden Pallas Athena had stripped the heavenly armor from her shoulders and wise Zeus was glad hail to you daughter of Zeus who holds the Aegis!!!!!

Athena, the goddess of war, holds the counterparts of the god Ares.
Athenas Romanian name is Minerva

Athena is the goddess of many important things- domain, wisdom, law, war, justice, strategy, craft, civilization, literature, reason, agriculture, mathematics, courage, inspiration, strategic warfare, strength, arts, crafts, and skills.
Her sacred animals are the owl, horse, snake, cattle, fam, eagle, tiger, leopard, other cats.

Her symbols are helmet, shield, spear, aegis The owl in particular because they are known for their wisdom and great intuition of judgment. Minerva, the Roman goddess name for Athena, the owl is also related to that name, Athena’s owl’s name is Athen Noctua. Athena’s powers are the ability to invent useful items and crafts. She crafted a ship, chariot, rake, a plow. also, created skills women from ancient Greece used such as weaving and pottery. Some of Athenas Strengths is a rational, intelligent, powerful defender in war and a potential peacemaker, her weaknesses are rational, powerful, defenders of the war, as well as a possible peacemaker. Athena can conceive children when her thoughts meet the mortal ingenuity of a man, they would be born the same way she was, which would make her kids literally “grandchildren”. She adopted a son named Erichthonius

In the beginning, Athena wasn’t described as a virgin. although has acquired the characteristics early on and was the basis of interpretation of her epithets Pallas and parthenos as a war goddess, she couldn’t be controlled or ruled by other goddess-like aphrodite, as a palace goddess she couldn’t be violated.

According to another mythological story of Zeus and Metis, Metis gave Zeus a potion to cause Cronus to vomit out Zeus’s siblings, to forestall Metis from conceiving a child Zeus tricked her into turning herself into a fly and quickly swallowed her. At this point it was already too late, she had already conceived a child. The way Athena died was she jumped in from of Zeus to stop Kratos from killing Zeus, Krato, hurt, he asked her why she has done that, she informed Krato that for Olympus to prevail, Zeus hand to live.

Athena has multiple personalities, sometimes she has a masculine aura, other times she is the perfect vision of feminine beauty, her attitude changes daily, depending on situations. She uses her wisdom on how to act or react depending on circumstances. some offerings for Athena, explain to her you would like a working relationship with her, make a shrine of her and meditate in front of it.

Offer her beer, all gods and goddesses love beer. Offer some olive oil or cut up olives. According to Greek mythology, Athena is immune to love and romance. In this case, there isn’t a certain love(er) for her. Her current city is Olympus and the second is Athens.

KRONOS

BY: LYNN REED


Kronos has a brutal complex in Greek mythology. He overthrew his mother and empowered himself over the world. He is the father of Hades, Zeus, Poseidon, and Demeter. He was the most powerful god in Greek mythology and one of the most powerful gods in general. His wife gifted with sight was able to see one of their children overthrowing him one day.

With this being made aware of, he swallowed all of his kids except for Zeus. Zeus ended up setting his siblings free later on and overpowered his father. Kronos was locked up in prison with the Titans. Eventually, he reconciled with his son. Kronos was one of the Titan children of Gaia and Uranus. Kronos married his sister Rhea. Uranus loved the Titans who were beautiful and powerful, and he would lock up the less pleasing siblings, such as the Hecatoncheires and Cyclopes. Gaia started hunting for a hero among the Titans. Someone strong enough to overthrow their father and set free their siblings. All of the other Titans declined the offer except for Kronos, the youngest male.

Gaia gave Kronos a sickle to castrate his father with. He took over his father’s place as a leader for the pantheon. Unfortunately, Kronos did not completely accomplish what he promised his mother. He didn’t free his siblings. He became afraid that one of his children would treat him like he did his father. Kronos began swallowing his kids. (A different myth says that he only swallowed the male children.) Rhea was heartbroken that he ate her children. She went to talk with her mother, even though she was still distraught, at the captivity of her other children and with Metis, Goddess of Wisdom. They were still capable of coming up with a plan. Rhea was able to quietly save her son, Zeus. She then sent him into hiding.

Many years later, Zeus came out of hiding to confront his father. Kronos was secretly served an elixir that caused him to regurgitate the children he had swallowed. They returned as adults and wanted complete control of their powers. Zeus and his siblings formed a new pantheon, the Olympians, who squared up in a war against their elders, the Titans, led by Kronos. This war between pantheons lasted ten years until Zeus finally freed the Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires who helped send the Olympians to victory.

There are different stories of what happened to Kronos
• He escaped to Italy where he assumed a new name, Saturn
• He was imprisoned alongside other defeated Titans.

ROSE QUARTZ

BY: LYNN REED

Rose Quartz is found now in four countries. Madagascar, India, Germany, and the U.S. Any quartz crystal will form any time any amount of iron, titanium, and manganese are found together. This crystal is also a silicon dioxide.

Rose quartz stands for love, healing, peace, protection, fertility, gentleness, compassion, forgiveness, inner awareness, kindness, tolerance, raises self-esteem, self-awareness. It also removes fears, resentment, anger, grief, childhood trauma, and neglect, headaches, sinus, throat weight loss, addiction, earaches, reduces wrinkles, fibromyalgia, childbirth protection, helps brain functions, and growth in intelligence, and matters of the heart.

This crystal is used for humans and animals alike, for calming anxiety, nervousness or resolve the history of abuse, and helps to heal any traumas that may have occurred. The shaman has kept this crystal in their tools for hundreds of years and keeps it wrapped up in the finest deerskin they can obtain to protect it and cleans the negativities and illness out that it has absorbed from others. It is also kept within the deerskin for the understanding of the strength of the crystal.

This crystal is also good for any youth going through any hormonal change from entering puberty. The Rose quartz helps to give courage for them to go after a love interest or something they enjoy doing. Even a crush on the other teen at school. This will also help to bring out the inner beauty of a young woman.

The Rose quartz helps to heal the land of any memories of battles, the battle scars, heal any memory of murders from wars or any violent history. You can also bury the crystal in your garden to heal the land and have healthier more vibrant fruits and vegetables sprout up. With the minerals in the crystal that brought the crystal into existence, this is very possible for the garden.

It helps to heal any emotional wounds. , helps to create a peaceful, loving, calming atmosphere within the home and brings romance to couples in the bedroom, opens the heart chakra, and allows love to flow from within. Give this crystal to a child for warmth and security. It can be used on your altar to bring magickal energy to your spell casting and the work that is put into it.

Use the crystal on aches and pains to stop energy blockages, place it on the four corners of the bed for good rest. It is used in dream workings, and dream recall. Rose Quartz helps to resolve any separation problems, allows room for you to give or receive forgiveness, lowers heart stress and tension, removes resentment, jealousy, anger, it is also a strong connection to the universe, the earth, and the divine, and also allows for emotional growth.

Rose quartz has been known to help heal breast cancer and to aid in healing other cancers. It promotes a youthful appearance, aids in circulation, heart, adrenal gland, spleen, and kidney ailments. Alleviates, vertigo, asthma, varicose veins, eases sexual frustrations, and balances out sex drive. Also used in helping to heal the heartache and hurt in the event of a death. Don’t set it out in the sunlight to cleanse it, the crystal will fade. Bury it in the yard, use sage smoke, to cleanse the rose quartz, and to recharge use tea and rose water.

***Rose Water Recipe***

This is a rose water recipe that i use, you are welcome to it if you wish to use it.

The items needed are rose petals, distilled water, alcohol, and a storing jar or a spray bottle depending on if you are going to use it for a bath or a spray.

***Instructions***

Boil your distilled water-six parts distilled water/ Three parts rose petals/ Steep these together for several hours, the longer you allow the petals steep, the stronger the scent will be, add distilled water a little at a time depending on how much it has evaporated. Let the potion cool, strain out the petals, pour into a jar and store in the refrigerator, make a spray with it by adding a cap full of Vodka or witch hazle as a preservative to add shelf life to your potion.

Spray yourself with it as a body spray to add loving energy to your love life, and space. You can add it to your bath as long as you did not add any preservatives. Use it to invite intimacy into your life and heart chakra. Soak in it and visualize blossoming flowers for peace and calming energy.

WITCHES BLACK SALT

BY: LYNN REED

Black salt is made a few different ways for centuries, and if you add or subtract an ingredient or three hahaha will determine if you going to have a protection salt or a hexing salt. It is used for hexing, cursing, jinxing, blessing, protection, and healings. Salt is an excellent element for any spell due to the purities it possesses from the wonderful mother earth. This will act as a protectant from physical, and psychic attacks on you as well as absorb psychic energies. This is also a representation of the earth. This is also a base for alchemy, hoodoo, and is useful at work, and workspaces.

The purpose of this salt is to deter any ill will, negative intentions, physical or psychic attacks, negative spirits sent. It’s used in casting circles, sprinkling around the perimeter of your property line, cast a line at the foot of your front door outside. Once it has served its purpose ill sweep it up and tosses it away in a bag all its own. If a spell is completed rather it is blessing or hex, ill bag it up and dispose of them both together and bury it far away and as deep as possible. Negative energies can make crazy things happen.

There are two ways I make the black salts, one is for hexing and the other is for personal protection or to protect the spell I’m working on.

1)- Is the protection black salt, Add powdered eggshell, sea salt, or Himalayan salt, white sage ash, incense ash, 3 pinches of used coffee grounds, and cinnamon powdered up.
6 eggshells powdered, membranes removed completely
A quarter or a fourth of my container of salt, put in a bullet blender to powder up for use
The ash of one whole white sage bundle
The ash of 6 burned incense sticks
One tablespoon of cinnamon- powdered
3 pinches of used coffee grounds or 1 teaspoon full
place the lid on and shake vigorously to mix up well

When I make black hexing salt, I use your basic sea salt or Himalayan salt, the ash of a burned charcoal disc with burned fresh coffee grounds, the shavings of cast iron from one of my skillets, the outside part, its the darkest and most concentrated, powdered black pepper and black walnut, rather it is the leaves, bark branches, or a piece of the root broken up as small as I can get it after completely dried out. When this is being used, I sprinkle it around my spell. I have used this once and a sour jars life is usually seven to nine days. This one took effect on the third night after the third black candle was burned on it.

A quarter of the container of salt in a bullet grinder to powder up
One full burned charcoal disc powdered up with 1 tablespoon of coffee ground burned on it. Shave a small pile of cast iron metal shavings, 1 tablespoon of powdered black pepper
Then one tablespoon of black walnut powdered up.

So as you can see, there are many differences between hexing salts and a protection salt. They become very strong and powerful. Kosher table salt is fine to use if this is what you have available to you. You can grab a container and use the ashes from a barbeque pit because of the charcoal or wood, the ashes from your fireplace id acceptable because the ash is from wood and wood as salt comes from the ground and has natural purities for protections, in Hoodoo, charcoal and black walnut id for hexing, jinxing, and cursing.

Kosher table salt- No basic table salt is not blessed by a rabi, it is exactly what it is, a simple myth, Now if I was to grab the shaker off his family’s dining table EEHHH maybe, but I’m sure he would look at me about half-crazy so if Kosher table salt is what you have, it is perfectly fine and just as safe to use as sea salt.

Seas salt- This is a little better than your basic Kosher table salt, this is more natural, and for protection, it’s perfect, add in some ash from a sacred fire ritual ceremony.

Himalayan salt- is pink because of the iron it has infused into it, iron is also an element that represents the earth, so with that being said, it offers protection during an out-of-body experience which is astral projection, and used for shamanic workings.

Black lava salt- this is sea salt mixed with activated volcano charcoal, this is very good for rituals and ceremonies, its good for removing physical and psychic toxins, this is awesome for any purifications you perform.

Dead sea salt- due to the connections to the holy land it is highly recommended for purification ceremonies and rituals, this holds a lot of minerals and comes up from under the earth ground, great for cleansing baths and breaking negative psychic attacks.

MALACHITE

BY: LYNN REED

Malachite means mallow, mallow is a green herb and also stands for soft or malakos, either way, the name goes well with the crystal. As the crystal is also a soft stone and easily carved into shapes and sizes.

It is found in twelve countries, Shaba, Congo, Tsumeb, U.S, England, Mexico, Namibia, Australia, Chili, Arizona, Russia, and the Ural Mountains.

Malachite is a soft crystal. On the scale of hardening, it sits between3-4%. With this being said, the only jewelry that it is used in is earrings, pins, and denotes and is used for a lot of sculptures because of how soft the crystal is, it is easy to cut into, the crystal is easily cracked, chipped and broken.

Emerald Malachite is found in the Sinai and Eastern deserts in Egypt. It is rare to find a single Malachite crystal when they are found here but when you do find them they are already in a prism shape and are long. When the crystal is found in raw form it looks like tiny carpet fibers jumbled up.

Malachite is is a chemical look alike to Azurites, and it comes from azurite so with this said the two are normally found together and sometimes they have grown together as one crystal. It is very sensitive to hot water, acid, and acidic chemicals and it will lose its shine very quickly. Malachite will also break down extremely easily, very similar to selenite.

This crystal goes way back into the ancient Egyptian era. To the Roman and the Greeks as well. They would use this stones powder after it was cut down to make eye shadow, the powder would be mixed in with oils, animal fat (tallow) to make the eye shadow, jewelry, and would add it to paint for the pigmentation to have green paint. In Russia the heaviest Malachite crystal weighed twenty tons.

Women in those eras were known for having eye disease. Since Malachite was believed to hold healing powers, they would use it as an eye shadow to cure or prevent eye disease from happening.

The crystal is green due to the amount of copper carbonate in it. There are light green and dark green stripes or lines in the crystal. The dark green is where not so much water diluted the stone but the lighter the color of green the more diluted it became and washed away some of the copper.

This crystal is used predominantly by healers, it is used in the protection of witchcraft, the evil eye, evil spirits, strong cleanser for the body, releases childhood trauma, and releases a past life. This stone shows a lot of compassion for what is blocking the spiritual growth, it breaks patterns of life that are worn out, draws any deep feelings, also shows someone about taking responsibility for their actions, and puts an end to unessisary ties. Malachite teaches you to take action for your feelings and thoughts.

Malachite heal the earth, and cleanses pollutants from the air, and removes negative energies from your body as well as the individuals you are around that may have been an attack on you or the negativities that you may have encountered while out and about. This crystal soaks up the negativity so you dont as long as you carry this crystal on you, in a pocket, purse, wallet, or even in a crystals bag in your bra by your heart,

Malachite played a roll thousands of years ago in the Egyptian rituals. Malachite represented vegetation which meant new life and fertility and because they understood vegetation, it also meant death, this also in return was resembling the circle of life.

Malachite has also been referred to as the magic stone because of its good luck, safe travels by air, and busy road protection, good health, success, consistency for affection. Thousands of years ago it was worn to protect against black magick and sorcery, It is good for wishes, prosperity magic.

It is associated with the love goddess lady of the mountains and associated with venus and if happy it would protect minors from any harm, Freya, the Norse goddess of love and beauty. By gazing at or holding Malachite it will relax the nervous system, and bring a sense of peace and harmony. It assists in treating the heart, lungs, emotional problems, and migraines.

LABRADORITE

BY: LYNN REED

The Labradorite crystal, I would have to say is my personal favorite. In this column, I am going to cover a lot of information that will be helpful. In the next several paragraphs you going to be mesmerized. Who knows some of you may read this and jump online and order yourself a nice size gorgeous Labradorite. So hold on tight, we’re going on a Rainbow Labradorite ride. The meaning of Labradorite is “Stone of Magick”.

Labradorite represents a wide variety of things for a single crystal. I was honestly surprised and impressed with it. The Labradorite is loved by diviners, healers, shawman, hidden realms, seen and unseen. Self-awareness into the spiritual world, intuition, psychic abilities, protection, auras, strengthening sights, prophecy, coincidence, clairvoyance, telepathy, healing, serendipity, respiratory issues, anxiety, stress, blood pressure, menstrual symptoms, spleen, stomach, adrenals, liver gallbladder, gout, and last but not least, rheumatism.

So as you can see in a short, there is a multitude of things the cherished Labradorite, is great for. Throughout history, dating back for thousands of years, Labradorite is loved and cherished by many, shawman, diviners, Psychics, and so on. Many have relied a lot on the beautiful crystal. this crystal also assisted the telepathic, third eyes, and psychics to see and also visit the spiritual realms, sometimes even tell prophies.

Many healers, such as the shawman- (Indian medicine man) use this stone to help relieve pain associated with menstrual cycles, gout, Gaul bladder issues, pain with the spleen, stomach aches, and rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes the individuals that have high blood pressure keep this wonderful stone nearby to help with the pain that comes with the heart hurting from blood pressure going sky high and to alleviate the headaches that come with that.

Anxiety and stress, well theirs a lot to be said for these two that go hand in hand. Stress goes up, anxiety is sure to follow and does not stay far behind. Anxiety kicks in and it gets hard to breathe, the heart starts racing and your breathing becomes labored. When this starts happening, I light some white sage and place the Labradorite between my collar bone and my curated artery, after a few minutes, everything starts to settle down. Great to have. This may not work for all, everyone’s crystals have their unique bond with their owner.

BIRTH AND HISTORY OF THE WITCH

By: LYNN REED

The term “witch” has always been perceived as derogatory and made out to be horrible. It was made and taught to others as a bad thing. Evil, devil-worshiping, and satanic things, and related it to crazy people, and was even greatly exaggerated to brainwash people from following or even learning the actual true meaning of a witch, their lifestyle,s, and practices.
We were scrutinized and exaggerated as have the appearance of a wart nosed, pointed hat-wearing, leaning over boiling pots, wrinkled up, broom flying, bristled, and frizzed hair. In reality, history was dark and quiet and for the most part gloomy and confirming by society.
originally witches were magical practitioners who cast magical spells and would call upon the spirits to help carry out those spells by realigning the universe to reorganize the sequence of things and events. In the old days, witches were seen as working for the devil. In reality, centuries ago, I repeat centuries ago pagans were healers and were referred to as wise women. Technically this was just more Wiccan crap formed by Gerald Gardner. Healers fall under the Native Indian Shaman. Yes, I do believe that a witch can be a healer but practices under the Native Indian spiritual healers. Altho, not as a Pagan or Wiccan. These are called Christian-witches which cannot exist according to your so-called all mighty God.
There is no certain way of knowing when the witch came about but the first documented record of witch happenings happened from 721-931-BC, Yes I said BC. Before Christ. So technically if it was before Christ, how would they even know when witches and the magickal practitioners of all sorts were even in existence or how evil the craft was even supposed to be. That’s right, they don’t. There’s no way it would be recorded in the Christian bible much less and of the books with-in.
Witchcraft was talked about in 1-Samuel, talking about King Saul, who went looking for the witch to summons up the spirit of Samuel, the spirit of the dead profit, to attempt to defeat the Philistine army. So there you have it, even a so-called Christian went looking for aid and assistance from a witch. The witch brought Samuel back and about, Samuel talked about the death of Saul and his sons. The next day Saul committed suicide and his sons were killed in battle. This is another example of magickal practicings and the reorganizing and aligning of the universe. For every one thing done something else has to be moved around to take its place. With all this proof in my opinion Christianity does not exist.
Witches and witchcraft were always a derogative thing to the hypocritical, two-faced, back-stabbing mocking Christian “individuals”. who in my opinion has been given false hope and empty promises of redemption. From everything, I have ever experienced in my personal life as a former so-called Christian is the hypocritical ways of church-going, bible thumping Christians. Always gossiping about someone behind their backs and turn around, smile at you, try to hug you and tell you how glad they are to see you. ask you if there anything you need and how they missed seeing you at church last weekend. If you want to see their so God’s humor and laugh at you, tell him your plans, see how fast it goes south.
I have no desire to ever reclaim Christianity, besides it was to appease my mother as it was. They pretty much stole every Holy day the craft practitioners have and tweaked it to make the Holidays fit into their false hopes lifestyles they were brainwashed to have for them to fit into someones say of conformity and lies, to feel good about themselves, and to be able to sleep at night. The simple explanation of the difference between us as witches and the so-called Christians is that we will openly say that yes we acquired a lot of our spiritual and healing practices from the native Indians. The Christians on the other hand will never say they stole any of our Holy days and tweaked them to their likings. As a witch myself, I can honestly say we, none of us have nor will ever actually fit into anyone’s thoughts or ways of conformities.
The old testament of the Christian bible says that no one should reach out or contact a witch to communicate with the deceased or to believe in divination or chantings, henceforth again a little more could be said about the neo-pagans and the Wiccans as the Christian witch, It just can’t and don’t happen.
the chaotic witch-hunting frenzy took place in Europe during the mid-1400s. Thousands were accused of being witches, they were being tortured and tormented till they would say they were witches just to get people to stop torturing them. The majority would simply agree they were witches and were not. Within no time, just a matter of ten years, the witch hunts were just as common as going to the restroom. Most were executed by burning them at the stake and then decapitation to release their souls. It was believed at that time doing so would release the witch’s soul and couldn’t be summoned from the dead by any unknown witches. TV has glorified the witch into a nose wiggling teeny-bopper learning to control her powers and floating or orbing the natural body from room to room.
There were roughly eighty thousand witches killed in Europe in the witch hunt trials. Up to eighty percent were women who were reported as being in a feud with the devil and said to be full of sinful desires. The death toll took place between the 1500s and 1650s. Ireland had the lowest percentage as when Germany seemed to hit the top of the charts.
In 1486 there was a book written and was suspected to be what made the witch hunt worse and caused it to spread throughout the new world country. The title of this book was “Malleus Maleficarum” meaning “The Hammer of Witches” in English. This book was basically and simply giving instructions on how to identify a witch and gives a detailed explanation of how to interrogate or question a witch. Just to be able to figure out who and what they were. This book was used as a guide and was enforced as a new law book to flush out witches by the Catholics and protestants. This book sold more books than any other book aside from the bible and held this position for over one-hundred years.
The Salem witch trials happened when a nine-year-old girl named Elizabeth and another of eleven years old started having seizures, the townspeople were calling these body fits and were screaming. Everyone thought the kids had been poisoned by some kind of fungus causing hallucinates and muscle spasms.
The Catholic witch hunts had finally started decreasing in Europe and were on the uphill rise in Salem Massachusetts. This had started a spinning motion derived from the Brittan and french war. The smallpox epidemic hit and the fear of continuous attacks from the native tribes were taking place and created more chaos among the townspeople. The most common witch hunt and trials were stemming from Salem Massachusetts The most famous witch hunt trials in Salem happened in 1692. Then more women started having these fits. This caused a lot of panics. Then Sarah Good, Tituba, and Sarah Osborne were slaves owned by Elizabeth Parris’s dad. the three women were accused of practicing black magic witchcraft. There were around about one-hundred and fifty accused and eighteen were sentenced to death. Bridget Bishop was the first one accused and to be hung. Oddly enough six men were also accused and sentenced to death.
Salem Massachusetts isn’t the first of all thirteen colonies to carry on about witches. In 1647 Windsor, Connecticut, The first person in America executed was Alse Young for witchcraft. Before the final witch trial happened in 1697, there were forty-six people were accused of witchcraft and eleven were killed for the accusation of witchcraft.

There were a lot of people panicked about witches in Virginia. In 1655 southern Norfolk County there was a law passed making it illegal to wrongly accuse someone of witchcraft. Still, witchcraft was a worrisome issue. There were approximately twenty-four witch trials and all consisting predominantly of women happening in Virginia from 1626 -1730. The ones accused never were put to death.
Grace Sherwood is the most talked-about witches. She was accused of hexing the neighbor’s pigs and cursing their cotton. There were other accusations made on her and her trial began in 1706. They decided to use a water test to see if she was guilty or innocent. Her arms and legs were tied up and she was thrown into a lake. During this time if you sank you were innocent, She didn’t sink and was found guilty of being a witch. She was imprisoned and for eight years.
Benjamin Franklin wrote an article in 1730 for the Gazette in New Jersey. It discusses all the ludicrous ways the authority accused people of being witches. Not too much longer the chaotic behavior and panic had come almost to a screeching halt. Then he had a law passed preventing people from being wrongly convicted of such accusations.