CANDLES PART I

Candles are usually molded or dipped mass of wax or tallow containing a wick that may be burned to give light, heat, or scent. They are also used for celebrations purposes, resembling a candle in shape, or used as a sulfur candle for fumigating. The original candle was made from tallow melted animal fat wrapped around what we now call twine and other materials. That will be covered later.

Im going to touch on something a lot of people wonder about candles. There is so much information on a multitude of things except candles. I thought I would write a little about what I have learned about them. Plus, some of the other meanings that most people have not heard about before.

The candle flame represents the light in the darkness of life, mostly your individual life. Im not sure how many have heard of the saying ” What happens at night will come to light”? It may make sense now about the candle flame representation. The illumination is the symbol of the truth. Lit them in times of death; they signify the light in the next world. They represent peace and calmness. Candles are used to summon gods and to honor them. Purification and cleansing are closely related. Festive in nature and used to ward off evil spirits. As long as your candle continues to burn, your intentions are working, sometimes stronger or weaker than intended. For Samhain, candles were carried from eleven till midnight. If the candle went out, it was an evil omen. If it didn’t, it meant one year free from spell attacks.

If you are curious about incorporating witchcraft into your spiritual practice and magickal rights, candle magick is a term that some who practice witchcraft would rather use. It is a good introduction because it is so simple and inexpensive. All you need is a candle, something to light it with, intentions, and purpose. If you happen to have herbs, you can powder up your herbs to add to your candle and intention.

Candle magick is also a form of alchemy in which all the elements are represented. You have the flame, air to feed it, melted wax represents the water, and solid wax for the earth. If you add powdered herbs, the herbs can also represent the earth or even crystal pebbles in the bottom once you melt it down to remold it. Other than the basic elements, you can use whatever colors, herbs, oils, crystals you want that will suit your intentions and rights workings. You can do candle magick with any type of candle, as long as your intention is there; keep in mind, though, the candle’s color and properties have to match your intentions. I do not purchase scented candles. If a smell has to be added, I add a drop or two of essential oil to the candle wax after I have melted it down and use a tree twig to mix it into the wax.

Candle magick can be made to your specific desire. Everyone has a different practice and a different path; not many divert from the true practices, but some things are tweaked for other desired intentions; that is as it should be. Pick and choose what you want to incorporate and pull from other practicings if you wish, but do it as close to the authentic, ancient, and ancestorial ways as possible.

This is known more along the lines of being an eclectic witch. You can start by putting your candle on a cleansed dining room table or clean and purify your Altar and go to it at the same time every night to meditate on your intentions until the candle has quit burning or the wick is gone. For the nights the candle is burning, observe how the flame is burning. Never blow out the candle. Pinch the wick or use a bell snuffer to put the flame out. You could blow out your intention, and I have also heard that you are blowing away the gods or spirits you have called upon.

When I try to solve a problem, sometimes I’ll put just a dab of witches protection salt on my white or black candle. Cinnamon is used for purification and protection. Yellow candles are for focus and intellect. You can buy a ritual candle for just a few dollars. Metaphysical shops sell little candles for rituals in a large selection of colors for cheap. So it is really easy and quick to just get a candle, add your intended purpose of its job, and add any other ingredients. The strongest works come from handmade items. Even just melting down the wax and reshaping or molding it is better than just when bought. It is the quickest and easiest magic to perform. Most of the time, when you purchase a ritual candle from the metaphysical shops, the intent is almost already added because each candle color has its purpose and meaning. They each have their properties. Some of their properties are closely related, such as red and pink for love and self-love. You simply call out what part the targeted purpose is.

You can add on meanings by engraving symbols, runes, sigils, or even a name and a birthday on the side of the candle. Working rights are all about adding unique meanings to things. It makes much more sense while you’re doing it, as well as pinpointing your intended target.

If you’re looking to use candles for your working rites, take some time considering your plans in advance. Put some thought into what you want to draw in. Then go shopping with a clear mindset allowing your intuition to guide you to what you need at that moment and pay attention to what pulls you to it.

You need to consider all the characteristics of the candle. Think about your intentions and your target and if it will fit, and how you can best symbolize that in the candle. What smell should you add? If any? How long do you want it to burn for? Do you want to shape or form it into a silhouette? Do you want a female or male candle? Do you want a penis or vagina as a representation of a male or female? Do you want a vehicle formed to represent a car wreck or a mechanic’s job? Does a blue eye candle help bring forth sights or strengthen sights? There are so many things you can do with candle magic. If you want to buy a spell candle with an intention already set, buy them from an actual witch, wizard, sorcerer, magician, or apothecary that “knows their stuff.”

You will hear or see results coming to the surface fairly quickly. Candle magick is fast-working and plays no games, and is intense, so be sure that this is what you want, and by all means, be prepared for the outcome. An example of a witch using candle magick —It was believed that witches would use holy candles to put a curse on individuals. When the witches would do this, it was talked of that they would say “the Paternoster” and drop the holy candle in a man’s steps that they hated and say, “hath done his feet rotten off.”

Candles have been used as a LIGHT source for celebrations for more than 5,000 years. Candles played an important role in religious ceremonies. Hanukkah, the Jewish Festival of Lights, which is homes in on the lighting of candles, goes back to 165 B.C. There are Biblical sources to candles, and Emperor Constantine has also been documented to have given orders for candles to be used during Easter (Ostara) services in the 4th century A.D

The Colonial women made America’s first design of candlemaking. They found out that boiling the grayish-green-colored berries from a bayberry bush created a sweet-smelling wax, and it has a clean burn when used. Although, getting the wax from the bayberries was extremely time-consuming and tedious. As a result, the bayberry candles quickly disappeared.

Ancient people would stare into the candle flames, and it would reveal mysterious things. By staring into a flame, you can go into an altered state of mind and see the gods, the future, what will happen, who it is going to happen to, or someone you’re supposed to be with or do some workings with. You could receive answers to things that need some resolution; today, this is called meditation and having sights.

Around the third century, the Egyptians would use lamps, and candles, in a magic ritual for getting answers from dreams. During ancient times, a person would go to a cave, sit facing south, and stared into a flame; once he saw a god, that person would lay down in the cave and sleep, expecting the god to come to him in his dreams with the answers he was looking for.

Most Western cultures relied on candles created from animal fat called tallow. A huge improvement that came during the middle ages was to use of beeswax to make candles. It was introduced in Europe by a traveler. Beeswax wasn’t like an animal tallow; beeswax burned pure and clean; it didn’t make a smoky flame. A very sweet smell came from the beeswax instead of a nauseating, decaying odor of tallow. Beeswax candles started being used at church ceremonies, the beeswax candles were expensive, and if you are not rich, you could not afford to burn them in your home.

When the fourth century came around, both candles and lamps were part of Christian rituals. It was not until the ending of the Middle Ages and the twelfth-century candles that were placed on church altars. The Catholic Church used the consecrated holy candles in rituals of blessings, cleansing away the sins, and exorcisms.

The whaling industry, late in the 18th century, brought the first large change in candlemaking since the Middle Ages when crystallizing sperm whale oil made a wax (called spermaceti), became available in large quantities. Like beeswax, the spermaceti wax did not give off an odor when burned and would give off a much brighter flame. It was harder than tallow or beeswax. In return, it wouldn’t soften or bend from the summer heat. Historically, it has been documented that the first “standard candles” were made from spermaceti wax.

Candles became a common household item for Europeans; by the 13th century, candle-making had become a booming craft in England and France. The chandlers, candle makers, would go from home to home to make candles from the fat saved. They would make and sell their handmade candles from small candle shops.

Historical evidence has found that many early civilizations made wicked candles using waxes made from plants and insects. Some of the first Chinese candles were molded in paper tubes. They rolled rice paper to make the wick. Sometimes they made their wax from naturally found growing insects combined with seeds. In Japan, candles were made from wax extracted from tree nuts. In India, candle wax was made by boiling cinnamon tree fruit.

The ancient Egyptians used candles as early as 300 BC. Even though their candles didn’t have a wick, they used plant reeds instead. The reeds were soaked in tallow for days. The original use of candles started with the ancient Egyptians. Originally, they would wrap old frayed cloth material that was no longer useful as clothing material. They would wrap it around a large stick and dip it in tallow for several hours at a time to soak the material to get it to burn for a longer period. The cloth didn’t burn as much. Then they would mount them on the walls to light their way through the castles and pyramids.

Ancient Romans are given credit for creating the first wicked candle. Before that, dipping rolled papyrus repeatedly in melted tallow or beeswax was the way candles were made. They were also used to help travelers at night to see as they were passing by and were also used for religious ceremonies and rituals.

Later on, the Egyptians and Romans made candles from sheep and cow tallow. Tallow was melted into a liquid form and poured over flax, hemp, or cotton fibers, which was used as a wick. Tallow was always available and could be made in large quantities. They would melt tallow, and candles were made by dipping wicks in them to form tapered candles. These tallow candles dripped and smoked; they had a horrible smell. They also gave off very little light and burned fast. Poor people in the early 1800s made candles from the tallow that was collected during the annual autumn slaughter. Cows, sheep, pigs, and goats contributed to the 400 candles, which was the average every household needed a year to keep the lights on. Sheep tallow was everyone’s favorite because the smell was not as bad as the others.

In folklore, candles have a strong association with the dead. Perhaps dating back to old Jewish customs, later adopted by Christians, lighting candles for the dying and dead. A lit candle placed by the bedside of a dying person is believed to frighten away demons. One Jewish custom calls for keeping a lit candle for a week in the room where a person died to purify the air. In American folklore, a candle burning in an empty room will cause the death of a relative. Superstitions about candles hold that a guttering candle means someone in the house is about to die, and a candle that burns blue means a ghost is nearby.

During the witch-hunts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and the ones of unruly questions. Handbooks, such as the “Malleus Maleficarum,” recommended holy candles as among those consecrated objects that were used for protecting yourself from any injuries caused by witches. Farmers would use holy candles to protect their livestock from danger and curses cast by witch rite workings.

There used to be candles made from human fat and thought to hold property of a human life’s energy and used in the Black Mass of the 17th century, as well as other black magic rituals. “The Petit Albert,” an 18th-century grimoire, says a “Magic Candle” that was made from human tallow would tell you where the buried treasure was that would bring great wealth. The one hunting for the treasure took the candle into caves or very dark places. When the candle started sparkling brightly and hissed, the treasure was available. The closer they got to the treasure, the stronger the candle burned. When you were right there at the treasure, the candle would go out. Treasure hunters were advised to carry along lanterns with consecrated candles not only for light but to conjure the spirits of dead men who were said to guard the buried treasure. The spirits were summoned in the name of God and promised anything to help them find “a place of untroubled rest.”

At the turn of the 19th century, Francis Barrett, author of “The Magus” (1801), wrote that candles made of “some saturnine things, such as a man’s fat and marrow, the fat of a black cat, or the brains of a crow or raven. They are extinguished in the mouth of a man lately dead. It would bring great horror and fear upon the spectators about as often as it shone alone.”

GREEN WITCH

This was a personal request. This article is dedicated to Jessie Allen.

The Green Witch follows a mostly all-natural path. They are typically a solitary witch and practice a more closely followed path like Wicca. Im not saying they are Wiccan but very closely related and can be easily confused as Wiccan. They prefer to use items from nature and the universe for their spellcasting and rites. The Green Witch does workings involved with healings. They make spell potions, drinks, and creams. I have heard some people pick and kind of joke around at green witches. They call them tree huggers because they also lead a more health-conscious lifestyle, and they do things that help keep mother earth healthy and clean the best they can. They do not usually send out a hex or curse. They work more with love, light, and happiness even if someone wrongs them. This is based on personal interactions of my own on a green witch in the past.

They are naturalists, herbalists, and healers. A green witch embraces the power and energies of nature. They draw energy from the Earth and the Universe. They rely on natural objects, such as stones, gems, and crystals, to communicate with the land they live off of. Green witches use plants, flowers, oils, and herbs for healing. They also call on nature for guidance. They respect every living being regardless of size, nature, or human.

Others define the green witch as one who works with the elements, the land, spirits, and things considered green. The green witch harnesses the energy of the natural sources and moon cycles when practicing witchcraft. They create a bond or a close connection with all plants, trees, wildlife, and pets, as well as with the earth itself. Herbal magick is a primary tool for green witches, but even the most eclectic witch sometimes enjoys working with green herbal rights.

Becoming a green witch is not right for everyone. It is important to know more about what it means to be a green witch, and where it stems from, and being Pagan/neo-pagan and Wiccan, in general from ancient Paganism and ancestors to the “new age” green witches. It was a very slow change of practices and traditions throughout many centuries.

Green witches are peaceful, nature-based, and spiritual. They are more commonly Wiccan, the fastest-growing belief in the world. There are up to approximately eight hundred thousand Wiccans throughout the world. Although Wicca is probably the most well-known major “religion,” Not all Pagans, neo-Pagans, or Wiccans are green witches, and Not all green witches are Wiccan. Although there is a green Wiccan group, most green Pagans are eclectic solitary witches who do not identify with Wicca or a coven. They usually keep to themselves. You have your green witches in every path; just most green witches are more commonly associated or identify as a Wiccan.

A Wiccan saying is “harm none, do what ye will.” It means witches should never knowingly cause anyone, including themselves, any harm; instead, it is emotional, physical, psychic, and spiritual. Also, several pagans and Wiccan paths believe “what goes around, comes around.” It means any good or harm that a witch puts into the universe will come back to them somehow. It may not be immediately or even six months from that time. In the same aspect, they firmly believe at some point in time; the universe will send back to the witch any spells they did.

Many of you do not know me, but those who do know I am not Wiccan or pagan. I am solitary and use all my tools, not only herbs; I give equal exchange in return to the universe and do not believe in the three-fold law. I see myself as a “Witch.” No specific title was put to me. I use many natural items, such as herbs, but I am not a green witch. Some spells I do use poisonous items such as brown recluse spiders. I do all sorts of workings, from healing, hexing, cursing, etc. I mostly fall under a grey witch. I added this little bit about myself just for all to see that there are more ways of believing than just the threefold. Like me, some give equal exchange as payment which prevents a spell working from returning. It is paying forth your dues to the spirits, gods, and the universe.

In the next few paragraphs of the article, I will be talking a little about the history of the green witch. There is not an enormous amount of history because the practices were not tracked very much due to the persecution of witches in the past. With this being said, many documents were burned to keep them from being found and anyone from having proof of which people were witches. Convictions, hangings in Salem, and those set on fire and burned at stake in Europe is an excellent reason to keep yourself and your practices quiet. Unless you can trust who you tell, sometimes silence is golden.

In the history of the ancient witch, our ancestors, one of the things they would do when out and about was to pass an acorn to each other. It was to give protection and good luck to each other, but more so to see if someone they did not know was a witch or not. If they were a witch, they would say something along the lines of “thank you” or “bless you.” Some would even hand off the one they were carrying around to the witch that just handed them an acorn. If any of these things happened, they were able to know each other. If you gave an acorn to someone that was not a witch, they would usually ask what it is for or why you gave it to them.

As a witch myself, I believe in deities, goddesses, gods, universal spirits, ghosts, family ancestor spirits, the spirit of animals, and the name of the universe’s spirit, which is called Awen. It also depends on the individual witch and their own experiences. Some green witches believe in the goddess and god as the divine. Some believe that the universe itself is divinity and the universe manifests their rights’ working energies. Many witches call upon the earth’s nature spirits when performing their rights, especially faeries and ghosts. Faeries because they are listed up there with the gods. They are just one step below the gods and goddesses and are to be respected. A witch should never show any weakness when around faery. When you have a fae come to live with you, never say please or sorry to them. They see this as a sign of weakness and will run amuck on you. As well, some witches have relationships with a familiar, typically a pet dog or cat, whose magickal energies complement and intensify the witch’s working rights.

KNIGHTS TEMPLAR PART I

The knight is the most widely recognized in medieval Europe. They were also nowhere close to being romantic by any means. They wore their shining armor, rode their thirty hands high battle horses, and fought it out with their jousting spears and swords. With momentums from their lady love tucked away in the armor.

The knights were heavily trained warriors. They were armed to the teeth with protective gear and weaponry. They would ride their horses through enemy lands severing limbs and heads. Most knights came from wealthy families or were battle guards for royalty. The equipment needed for the horses and knights became very costly. There was still a cost if you traded your old gear to an ironworker for new gear.

Many knights were put in leadership roles and held at the top of the list to be responsible for the most critical battles in medieval times. They went down in history for this and many other things. Part of it was having a secondary job of writing poetry, working in the churches, having a religious position, and history.

One of the most successful battles in the middle ages was the Norman Conquest of England.
William of Poitiers was William the Conquerer’s Chaplin during the year 1066 during the invasion of England. He went through training in his teen years to become a knight. He was able to give an accounting for the king’s life. William of Poitiers later became a scholar and a priest.

William of Poitiers would document his writings extremely carefully to impress the king. He would write with extreme descriptive wording about the battles he fought. He discussed the gruesome and wonderful sights of the battle. As a mounted horse’s knight, he went into battle with the Anglo Saxons army. The majority of the Anglo Saxon army was made up of infantry soldiers. Most of the information on the battle of Hastings was documented from soldiers who had been in battle there.

Rodrigo Diaz, also was known by El Cid, is honored by the Spanish Reconquista as a hero. He leads Christian armies into winning battles against Muslim rulers in Spain. Even though he is a successful knight, his history runs a lot deeper than this. El Cid was serving two kings in Castile and was a leader in the military. He also spent more than ten years working as a mercenary. El Cid earned a lot of fame and wealth serving the Muslim leaders. As a commanding lead in the Zaragoza Taifa, he won several battles against the Christians. Muslim armies were a Muslim state in Spain. El Cid would only fight battles that would put him down in history notes. The history notes took place near the end of El Cid’s life. His military group took over the town of Valencia from Al Moravid Dynasty in 1094. Then again, he went back and took Valencia back from Al Moravid Dynasty in 1097.

The Knight Templar was closed down about seven hundred years ago. The main facility for the Poor Knights of the Temple of King Solomon became the Knights Templar. The main facility was placed upon the sacred Temple Mount, and that is where they took their vows to protect the Christians. The co-founder of the Knights Templar was a French knight named Huges De Payens, who was also the first Knights Templar Grand Master. In 1118, he was able to get this facility established with the help of Baldwin II. As the Christians steadily helped the Pilgrims get to the Holy City, they progressively became attacked more and more out on the streets.

In 1118 Huges De Payens and eight other knights went to get the blessing of Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem, to create security for the pilgrim tourists. Pope Innocent II and the Christian lawmakers both gave their blessings to do so. In 1129 The Knights Templar was steadily being downed by the religious leaders. A personal endorsement from the Catholic church and support from Bernard Clairvaux, a high-ranking Abbot, was giving to the Knights Templar. Donations and recruits piled up coming from all over Europe to the Knights Templar facility. They quickly grew into thousands and expanded to the western side of Europe, with new generations filling the new Templar facilities. They took an oath of poverty but still acquired wealth and land. They were under strict regulations of chastity and obedience. They were not allowed to drink, gamble, swear, have a wife, a girlfriend, or have children. It was a mandatory thing for their daily life to pray. Templars showed a lot of honor to the Virgin Mary.

In this time, they took on a cold and unpleasant code of conduct. They began being known as brutal and were forbidden to retreat unless outrageously outnumbered. They also took a dress code of white habits (robes) with a red cross on its front. In 1139 Pope Innocent exempted the Knights Templar from tax and everyone but the people of his land. The Knights Templar became a large economic monopoly. They had a multitude of banks, ships, and Knight Templar facilities everywhere in Europe up readily available to them and any of their needs at any time. Once the banks were set up, this gave religious pilgrims a way to deposit funds in the countries they lived in and were able to pull funds from the Holy land. This started giving the Templar a great amount of pull despite all their business ventures. They also owned the island of Cyprus and were loaners to nobles and monarchs.

In the later parts of the twelfth century, The Muslims retook Jerusalem. It took longer than ten years to lose their place. This caused the Knights Templar to switch tracks and relocate a multitude of times. This started a downhill spiral of the military campaigns in the Holy Land with the assistance of Europe. This situation pushes French king Phillip the IV to break apart the Knights Templar, and French King Phillip the IV had many of the Templars tortured and killed. The Templar refused to give any ruler indebted any further loans and expressed that they wanted to form their own state in southeast France. The last to be killed was Jacques De Molay, the last Grand Master in 1307. Huges De Payens was the co-founder of the Knights Templar and the first Grand Master and became a prominent public figure with the Crusades history. He also became a part of the first crusade with the French army, where the Christian/European army took over Jerusalem. As we all know, the Knights Templar, in the end, was violently dismembered in 1307.

The rules of the Knights Templar were very detailed and demanding. There were sixty-eight authentic rules of conformity to follow, from sleeping arrangements to eating, discipline, clothing, and repentance. The first time the rule guide had been written out, it was written to remind them of the vows they took to uphold the honor and dedication they made a lifelong commitment to and maintain their vows of poverty, obedience, and charity.

As time went on, the order got more extensive, and so did the wealth, and the more the demands conformed to a military-style organization. The discipline rule guide expanded and became more complex as a few original rules started to decinergrate. New rules were written up and quickly turned into several hundred within one hundred and fifty years. The authentic rule guide had become extinct but was written in French and Latin and re-written by other authors.

The following are the rules of the Knights Templar. Mind you; I can’t entirely agree with many of them because of my path. There is a second coming out about how they are tied into witchcraft. Some of the rules were from a history book I read; others I pulled out of some research I did some years ago. With all the rules they had, there was just no way to remember all the rules they had to follow.

(1) If a Templar was to step out of line and violate or become defiant of the written rules, instead it is one or multiple rules, the disciplinary procedures would be as minor as eating your meals on the floor up to and including corporal punishment and or “banishment” from the Templar brotherhood.

(2) There were not enough meal dishes to go around so that the Templar brothers will eat in pairs. Then one studies the other closer. That way, neither austerity nor secret abstinence is introduced into the communal meal. It seems fair that each person would have the same amount of wine in the cup.

(3) They were only allowed to eat meat three times a week, except for Christmas, The Saints, and the feast of the twelve apostles. It is understood that the custom of eating flesh corrupts the body.

(4) They are not allowed to leave the dining table unless there is an emergency or something that could disrupt the Templar home. For example, nose bleeds, horses in an uproar, a fire, or some form of war advancement on the home or Templars.

(5) When in the proverbial doghouse, the Knights Templar soldiers were ordered to eat on the floor.
*When a Templar is in penance when he eats, he must remain on the household floor to eat in front of everyone as a form of shame or discipline.

(6) The only time that the Templar is to eat without a napkin is if they are in penance on the floor eating or Good Friday, they clean the tables before the bread and water is put out and still no napkins, and all they can have to eat is the bread and water.

(7) All brothers’ habits should always be of one color, white, black, or brown. And we grant all brothers in winter and summer, if possible, white cloaks. The ones who have walked away from the life of darkness will recognize each other and have reconciled themselves to their creator with the white chastises, representing purity and whole chastity.

(8) These robes should be plain jane, dull, with no decoration or decals and no visible signs of pride. No one can have fur on their clothes, Any brother with a feeling of pride or arrogance would like to have a finer, better habit; he shall have the worst.

(9) The Knights Templar prohibited wearing pointed shoes, and shoe-laces were forbidden for any brother to wear. For it is a manifestation and known that these terrible things belong to pagans.

(10) Among the other things, because the heat is so intense, it exists in the East, from Easter, a linen shirt shall be given to any brother who wishes to wear it.

(11) No one may wear a hood on their head. No brother may wear a coif without a cloth cap.

(12) We forbid any brother to have gold or silver on his horse’s bridle, stirrups, or spurs. If a harness is given to him in charity and is so old that the gold or silver is tarnished, that the splendid beauty is gone and does not take pride in them, then he may keep them.

(13) No one is allowed to hang his mantle round his bed on hooks, for each is obliged to honor their habit.

(14) If a brother tears or gives back his habit willingly, he can not have it back for 12 months (one year) and one day.

(15) The company of women is a dangerous thing, for the devil has led many from the straight path to Paradise. Henceforth, women were not allowed to be admitted into the house of the Temple. That is why very dear brothers do not fit to follow this custom that the flower of innocence is always maintained among you.

(16) We believe it to be a dangerous thing for any religious man to look too much upon the face of a woman. For this reason, none of you may kiss a woman. Rather they are widowed, a young girl, mother, sister, aunt, or any other woman and, the Knighthood of Jesus Christ should avoid at all costs the embracing of women because men have given in to the likes of a woman, many times, so that they may remain eternally faithful before the face of God with a pure conscience.

!7) If a brother is found guilty of lying with a woman, and we hold the brother who is found guilty in a wicked place or house with an evil woman, he is not allowed to keep the habit. He should be put in irons, nor can he carry the piebald banner or take part in the election of a Master.

(18) The Templar prohibits and firmly forbids any brother to confide to another brother or anyone else about pleasures of the flesh that they have had with immoral women. If he hears them told by another brother, he should immediately silence him. If he cannot do this, he should straightaway leave that place and not give his heart’s ear to the pedlar of filth.

A- Forget about having kids too,
(19) We forbid all brothers to raise children over the font. No one should be ashamed to refuse to be a godfather. This shame brings more glory than a sin to the brotherhood Temple.

(20) This is the world of the MASTER, and another is invited into it. Jesus loves a well-behaved brother. To carry out their holy duties and be blessed by the glory of the Lord, escape the fear of hell-fire, it is fitting that all brothers who have to confess eternal brotherhood life strictly obey their Master. For nothing more humble to Jesus Christ than obedience.

B- Master, may I bathe,
(21) No brother may bathe, let blood, take medicine, go into town, or ride a horse without permission.

C- On a tight leash,
(22) No brother may shorten his stirrup leathers, girth, sword belt, breech-girdle without permission, but he may adjust his buckle without permission.

D- Ask first before using straps,
(23) No brother should carry his chainmail tunic or iron hose in a bag, neither in a guerilla nor in a profile. Still, he should hold it in a leather or wire mesh bag, he should not hang the wire mesh bag by the straps to have his hauberk, but he should carry it in his hand for as long as he or a sergeant can each hold it, and with permission, he may hold it or hang it by the straps.

Careful with that gear
(24) No brother may throw his lance without permission. He may repair his sword without permission, nor his wide-brimmed helmet, coat of mail, or throw their wide-brimmed helmets.

E- Here today, gone tomorrow, deal with it.
(25) The Master shall give whoever he wants the positions of another knight. A horse, armor, and whatever else, and the brother that used to own these things, should not become disgruntled or angry. If he becomes angry, he will go against God.

(F) Keeping outside influences at bay
(26)A brother can not have letters from a family member without the permission of his MASTER or his commander. Then if the Master chooses to, he or the commander can read the letter aloud to the brother and brotherhood.

G-Poverty isn’t just a concept.
(27) None of the brothers are allowed to have money without permission. When a brother asks any brother for money to buy something, he should purchase whatever it is as soon as possible, and only purchase what the brother says it’s for and nothing else also without permission to obtain the item.

H- You can’t take it with you anyway
(28) If a brother dies and money is found on him, his habit, nightclothes, or pouch will be considered his and stolen. And these brothers should not be buried with the other good brothers who have left this world, nor should they be placed in hallowed ground. They shall have him buried like a slave. (This is used in today’s spoken language)

I- Fixer-uppers, okay?
(29) If a brother was to build a house of stone or lime without permission of the Master or Commander of the Land, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it, if others were to ruin the house, he might repair it without permission.

J- Beware brothers in the dark
(30) And if possible, the house where they sleep and take lodging shall not be without light at night, so shadowy enemies may not take them to evil doings, which God forbids them.

(31) If a brother is tainted with the sin of sodomy, It is considered so filthy and disgusting that it should not be named.

K- Maybe it’s best to bundle up at bedtime
(32) You should always sleep in a shirt, pants, and in a woolen hose, belt with a small belt, and your bed should have three pieces of linen, that is to say, a bag in which to put straw and two sheets, and in place of one sheet, you may have a light blanket if the Draper wishes to give it to you.

L- Charge in battle only with a commander’s say-so
(33) If a brother who is in battle charges without permission, and harm comes of it, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it. But if he sees a Christian in peril of death, and his conscience tells him that he can help him, he may do so. But in no circumstances should a brother of the Temple charge without permission.

M-Beware banner infractions
(34) If a brother of the Temple who carries the banner in battle lowers it to strike, and no harm comes of it, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it. And if he strikes with it and harm comes of it, he may not keep his habit, so it may be decided to put him in irons; he may never carry the banner or be a commander in battle. So basically, if you carry the banner, you do not engage in battle.

N- Save a life? Fine, keep quiet.
(35) And if it happens by chance that any Christian acts foolishly, and any Turk attacks him to kill him, and he is in peril of death, anyone who is in that area wishes to leave his squadron to help him, can as long as his conscious tells him to do so and can aid the fallen knight.

O- Holy relics need special attention.
(36) When the True Cross is transported by horse, the Commander of Jerusalem and the ten knights should guard it day and night and should camp as near to the True Cross as they can for as long as the journey lasts, and if a camp is established, everyone should lodge with the convent.

P- Staying within bell range
(37) When the brothers are in camp, they should not go out for pleasure without permission, except as far as they can hear the call or the bell, not to their dwellings, or carry any baggage on their horses, near or far, without permission.

Q- No rogue hunting
(38) And let it be known that the brother should not search for any food except what is given communally, except green vegetables from the fields, or fish if they know how to catch them themselves. They are not to hunt wild game unless they know how to take them without hunting, in such a way that’s not to disrespect the commandments of the house.

R- Share with your neighbor
(40) Each brother may give some of the food in front of him to the other brothers around him, and only in arms reach, but no farther, and if you have the best of whats to share, you invite the ones who have the worst to your circle.

S- A head held high
(41) Each brother should strive to live honestly and set a good example for other people and other orders in everything, in ways that that no one can say anything bad about him, not in his riding, his walking, drinking, his looks, and in no action or work. And especially should each brother strive to conduct himself humbly and honestly when he hears Lord.

T- Brothers should be seen and not heard,
(42) When the brothers come out of their night prayers, they don’t have permission to speak except in an emergency. But each goes to his bed quietly and in silence.

U- Stick it out at the chapel
(43) Each brother is required to hear the sermons entirely through. You are not allowed to leave, unless a brother has chores which can not be avoided, or if he goes in search of the one who has the place next to him in the chapel, only then can the brother be looked for in the bed or out with the horses and taking care of them.

(44) To each knight’s brother, he is given three horses and one squire, and if that squire serves charity, the brother can not beat him for any sin that he commits.

Beat, yes; maim, no
(45) No craftsman brother, neither one from the prison, nor any other, should strike a slave in such a way that he places irons round his neck without permission if he has deserved it; none should put him in a pillory nor pierce him with a sword without permission, but he should beat him and may without permission with a leather strap if he has deserved it. Still, he should take care not to maim him.

(46) None should place a wager on a horse or anything else, except an arrow without iron, or something that does not cost him or anyone else money, like an open lantern, wooden mallet, camping tent pegs, each brother of the Temple may wager against another brother, with his crossbow, ten pieces of a candle without permission, nothing else.

The paupers’ feet
(47) Whenever the Master is in on Maundy Thursday, the Thursday before Easter, he should wash the feet of 13 paupers (a person who receives from a charity) and should give each a shirt and pants, two loaves of bread, two deniers, and a pair of shoes, if he is in a place where he does not have them when he comes to the first of the house of the Temple where he has them, he should give them, for love of God.

(48) And the brother should wash the paupers’ feet and dry them with the towels, and afterward kiss their feet humbly. And let it be known that the Almoner should ensure that those paupers who are to be washed do not have any vile disease on their feet or legs, for perhaps it could bring illness to a brother’s body.

(49) Of all the brothers who are given a penance in the presence of the Master, none may rise from the floor unless the Master raises him, and the brothers may pardon them from manual labor and fasting but may not raise them from the floor and Friday fasting.

Toe the line or else
(50) If a brother refuses to carry out the commandment of the house he has been given and persists in the folly(commits a sin), the habit will be taken from him and, he will be arrested.

(51) When a brother is on penance, he should work with the slaves, and when he eats, he should sit on the ground before the household, eat his food, and always wear a heavy hooded cloak without a cross.

(52) If a brother lays his hands on another brother out of anger, he should not keep his habit(robes), and if the blow is serious, he may be put in irons(arrested).

(53) Whoever strikes a Christian man or woman with a sharp weapon, stone or staff, or anything a blow from which could kill or wound him, the habit is at the mercy of the brothers.

(54) If a brother leaves the house and sleeps two nights outside the house, he loses his habit, and he may not recover it for a year and a day. And if he keeps the things that they’re not allowed to have more than two nights, he is banished from the house.

SAMHAIN

BY: Lynn Reed

Halloween stems from the Celtic and Christian traditions.
While it has always been a morbid, but spooky celebration, it has changed a bunch over the centuries. The tradition began with the Celtic festival of Samhain with our ancestors, lighting bonfires and wear costumes to ward off ghosts. We would do this to blend in with any other spirits that came to haunt the All Hallows Eve, the only day a year they were allowed out to go run free. The history of Halloween goes back to a pagan festival called Samhain. The pagan and Christian occasions hadn’t always been back to back, though. Up until the 7th century, All Hallow’s Eve was on May 13. Maybe to offset the occasion with a religious celebration, Pope Boniface IV decided to change the observance to its date of November 1 date. Hundreds of years ago, people would dress up as saints and would go from door to door, which is the origin of Halloween costumes and trick-or-treating.

November 1 is All Saints’ Day, a Christian feast dedicated to celebrating the departed, and all saints. In Christian beliefs, people start celebrating major Holy Day feasts the night before it happens. Halloween’s beginnings are in the Catholic, and Christian religions. The Catholic holiday, All Hallow’s Eve, means the night before All Saint’s Day. Halloween is an antique way of saying the night before All Saints’ Day also called Hallowmas or All Hallows’ Day.

Hallows’ Eve, as it’s known by to, made its way to the United States by European immigrants in the 1800s and brought the witch’s costumes with it. With no scientific evidence, we could conclude that at least one out of four people has dressed up like the hooked-nose, broom riding, cauldron-stirring, wart-faced caricature at least one time in their Halloween experience.

Halloween is on October 31 because the ancient Gaelic festival of Samhain was considered the earliest known root of Halloween, occurred on this day. It marked a turning point in the time of year when the seasons changed. More important than that, observers believed the realms between the physical world and the spiritual world became extremely thin and was enabling them to connect with our ancient ancestors. This is shared by other cultures as well. Similar ideas are mentioned at Yom Kippur, a Jewish holiday. This occurs in October, also involves prayers for the ancient ancestors. This is also where Halloween got its “haunted” connotations.

Samhain has a lot of ritualistic ceremonies and rites to be able to connect with the spirits, as the Celts were polytheistic. While there isn’t a lot of information known about the ceremonies, others think the Celts celebrated in a costume made from simple animal hide from wildlife skin from a deer and such, as a disguise from the spirits, special feasts were enjoyed, and lanterns were made by hollowing out gourds; With this being done it started the carving of pumpkins and dropping in a lit candle. Over time, as Christianity took over, the pagan undertones of the holiday became less and less.

Halloween dates back at least more than 2,100 years. A time when Celtics celebrated New Year’s Day, or Samhain, As legend tells it, that the day before, or Samhain eve, Halloween day, faery and demon spirits would appear, as they traveled to the afterlife. Celts dressed in costumes to ward off the evil spirits and tap into the souls of their ancestry. Have you ever wonder why the broomsticks were a witch’s tool? Brooms were not technically meant for flying. In Celtic times, they had a bigger more mundane purpose. It was used to clean an area before a healing ritual could be carried out forthwith.

Halloween and witches will always be linked together just as roses and chocolate candies have been. Witches will always be one of Halloween’s favorite personifications for costume dress-ups as long as there are kids going trick or treating. Hundreds of years ago, people would dress up as saints and would go from door to door, which is the origin of Halloween costumes and trick-or-treating. Knowing the appreciation of the historical value of witches throughout history will definitely increase your Samhain enjoyment this year. One day a year we can be the way we are, and dress the way we want, and are comfortable doing so, showing out as a witch, blending with the background, and no one has a clue, is a wonderful breath of fresh air. Halloween has been linked to Samhain, It is the Celtic festival of the summer’s end celebrated in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man.

This century witch costumes have changed dramatically, and not many people will dress up as the ugly, old, wart-nosed witchs that are thought of in the myths, legends, and folklore. The women or better said, the witch of today, enjoy being a soft character that is, mystical character or creature. Today’s witch likes dressing up as faer folks or as the stereotypical Hollywood wiggle your nose, I dream of Jeanie witch. For the most part, who wouldn’t? It appears to be a fun way of being able to come out of the closet for most, even if it’s for one night. Go for it, have fun, entertain it. It’s a very pleasing and attractive look about today’ witch as well and so easily slipped by the Christian family members without a second thought. A witch costume with a sexy and feminine burst will put the witch in a standstill with a modern spin that most women like to embrace.

As we are all aware, Halloween is on the last day of October, but here’s some of you might not know, The word itself derives from “Hallowed Evening,” and was known by early Europeans celebrating as All Hallows’ Eve. All Hallows’ Eve — October 31st, and All Saints’ Day—November 1st, both paid respect to the saints. The name ended up getting shortened to “Halloween,”. Hallows means saints.

Drag queens started dressing up for Halloween in skimpy outfits in the 1970s. Halloween parade started in Greenwich Village in 1973 and was copied in Castro and West Hollywood, retailers were selling suggestive costumes. From digging around and hunting for old pictures and finding images of enchanting witches riding those broomsticks started in the 1910s, it looks like witches weren’t so much Salem any more but were much earlier than the disco era.

The mystical rituals of earlier times evolved into a more mediocre way of having fun and playing games. For example, then the heavy understanding of contacting the ancestors was replaced with the more simplistic idea of telling the future. One game was bobbing for apples, for example, became as popular as a fortune-telling game on All Hallows’ Eve. Apples would be used to select and represent all of a lady’s corners, and the guy—er, apple—she bit into would represent her husband in the future and Halloween was used as a matchmaking prop for young women in the 19th century.

All Hallows’ Eve ritual was mirror-gazing, this became a popular thing as people would hope to have a vision of their future by looking into the mirror. Party favors were being given out during earlier times such as fortune cookies and such. There were messages written on pieces of paper with milk, the notes were folded up then put into walnut shells. The shells would then be heated on a fire, which would cause the milk to brown making the message visible for the receiving client. People would make offerings of food to get on the good side of these spirits and departed ancestors, according to the Mirror.

Many people dress up in costumes as saints and would sing hymns or verses going from door to door. Children would go from door to door asking for what’s called”soul cakes,” which is like a biscuit. This was derived from the “All Souls Day holiday, Soul cakes on November 2. eventually this was a part of Halloween night and the basic concept evolved into trick-or-treating. The candy-grabbing concept also started in the U.S. around the early part to the mid-1900s, families would provide treats to children thinking they wouldn’t do any holiday jokes.

Costumes started evolving, from earnest costumes as saints, like most things as time goes, just bled out of popularity. Then a young Scottish and Irish guy decided to start pulling jokes come up with the idea to dress up in scary-looking costumes and did this as a way to scare neighbors and passer Byers. An act that simply caused a turning point in costumes and the traditional actions in Samhain. Halloween costumes became scary, spooky, funny, and creative all at the same time.

Halloween is still a very popular holiday in America today. Although Samhain just about didn’t make it across the Atlantic. The Puritans didn’t agree with the holiday’s pagan roots and refused to participate in the celebrations. When the Irish and Scottish immigrants started arriving in America, the greater numbers, the holiday came back. The very first American colonial Halloween celebration showed large public parties to commemorate the upcoming harvest, tell ghost stories and sing, and dance.

STONEHENGE

In 1915 the original owners put the Stonehenge crescent up for auction. The Antrobus family looked after it for years, since the beginning of the 19TH century. Cecil and Mary Chubb purchased it at UKD 6,000 and gave it to the nation on October 26th, 1918. The chief executive of the English heritage Mayor, says that the ruin went from being neglected to being a national treasure. Several ruins had fallen and become twisted up over the years of neglect. The English government seeing this they had several different steps of reconstruction and repair for Stonehenge, and they were uprighted in the reconstruction time. There were two different periods that repairs were made to Stonehenge. One was from 1919 to1921 and the second one was from the 1950s to the 1960s. Mrs. Chubb inherited UKD 100,000 which is what was used to purchase the Stonehenge and the land. Today 6,000 UKD would equal eight million UK dollars. Mrs. Chubbs was a major factor in the purchase of the Stonehenge. There is a researcher for a college called The West of England College and had been staying abreast of the Chubbs and was documenting their life. Mr. Chubbs had been deemed Knight just a year after giving the Stonehenge to the nation. The couple was called Sir Cecil and Lady Chubb. For years, the archaeologist has been stumped on the mysterious powers the stone henge has. It took fifteen hundred years to get built and completed. The stone henge is in southern England. There are approximately one-hundred humungous stones standing upright in a crescent. At one point in time, this was used as a burial grounds. For centuries, no one has been able to find a definitive answer to what another purpose this place is used for. It has really confused people for hundreds of years because the outer ring is made of the sandstone that came from nearby quarries, the inner ring is blue stones, these came from Preseli Hills in Wales, two hundred miles from where the Stonehenge landmark resides at Salisbury Plains. Since the 1980s, over one hundred million people have come to see the Stonehenge monumental landmark. The only thing that anyone can figure out is that they were used for ceremonials and rituals and for winter and summer solace to celebrate the shortest and longest days of the year. Hundreds and hundreds come to this celebration every year. Today as of 2020 no one can get close to them due to tourists defacing and vandalizing the druidic stones. In 1977, they were sectioned off because all the physical touching was creating a lot of deterioration. The first part of them was built no earlier than five thousand years ago but could have been even longer than that. Archaeologists feel the prehistoric rune was built up in multiple stages. To help the stones to stand there was a deep hole or ditch dug to support the thousands of tons of stones weight back in this era. The holes were named after John Aubrey, the guy who discovered them, and at one time they may have held a ring of lumber posts around them. Hundreds of years later after this landmark uprising, it is believed that that the boulders carried eighty blue stones in them and was brought up into a crescent-shaped standing position. There are only forty-three left standing today. The third part of this uprising happened around two hundred BC. There was a crescent ring set up from Sarsen sandstone slabs. Some were put together in tree piece structural builds called tri-Lithions that stand in the center of the stone henge. Approximately fifty can be seen on the historical site and more than that may have been there at one time or another. The work with the blue stone may have continued through roughly the 1600s and they had been moved around multiple times. The largest stone henge weighs more than forty tons, stands up to twenty-four feet in height, and came about twenty-five miles north of the memorial site and was moved by sleds and ropes. Some were found in the areas the archaeologist started digging in. Stonehenge site is a world heritage site jumping in with other UK sites is the Giants Cause Way Canterbury Cathedral and Lake District. This is now a threatening issue. There has been talking of putting in a three KM tunnel along the side of the stones. There was a dispute on this and the problem is it would disturb the grounds and cause the Stonehenge to crumble and fall due to the vibrations of the ground while the construction work was being done. The highways department says it would restore the tranquil environment setting of the historical site. Archaeologists argue it would cause imminent damage to the historical landmarks, so now UNESCO wants to put in a bypass. With all the arguing there is an undesirable chance that they will pull the world heritage status. Stonehenge is a Unesco world heritage site and is not legally protected as an official ancient monument and has become the property of the Crown. It belongs to the royal family king and queen and the land belongs to the national trust. The iron age was the last time Stonehenge was used as a burial grounds. There is proven documentation to there being spiritual activity attached to all the Stonehenge sites. It is also believed that it is linked to the heavenly divine workings. For example, the equinox or eclipse. There are ancient tales of this being related to the English folklore. There are over 400 burial mounds that surround the Stonehenge crescent and most people get creepy feelings from this area. Architects and others are completely uncertain of the exact purpose of what Stonehenge sites were used for. At one time we are certain it was used for burial grounds but some think it was used for royalty, others think Monks, Druids, and Vikings. What has been established is that it was used as a very important establishment for thousands of years. It’s also unknown as to why Britians went to Salisbury Plains in particular to build it and why the Stonehenge was continued to be built. We do know at one point it was a burial site but was also thought of being used for astronomy purposes. Other thoughts are it is used for ceremonial rituals or a memorial to honor to connect to the ancient ancestors. I believe it is for connection rituals to our ancient ancestors because of all the reported sightings at the American Stonehenge location. Some believe that people did not have the slightest clue of astrology or any knowledge of zodiacs back in that era. With this being said, many believe it was used for ceremonial and ritual purposes back then. They also believe the England fog and cloud coverage would prevent them from being able to use it as it would block the view. In the time these were built the skies and air would be clean of pollutions. There is also the possibility of it being used as a healing grounds because the corps that were unburied shown visible signs of illness, scars, wounds, and injuries. If this is the case, what are the odds and possibilities that it was used as a healing and burial sight for any of the Knights Templar? The other reason that its thought of as a healing grounds is because the blue stone that is in the boulder hold healing properties. There is also a Stonehenge in Salem and New Hampshire. No one knows who built these or why it was left abandoned. America’s Stonehenge has always been a very spiritual location. This location is up on Mystory Hill. It is in the far back of the woods and is a self-tour site. The 4,000-year-old Megalith location is made like a maze with trails of stone chambers. This specific location has an Oracle chamber, an operating observatory, a sacrificial altar, and a burial chamber. This location is open to the public year-round and the metaphysical and the paranormal activity at this site is practically impossible to ignore. Many tourists have reported things like they felt they were being watched and there was not anyone around. They would see a pair of red fiery glowing eyes glaring at them from a short distance. Neighbors can see strange lights and hear odd noises coming from within the woods late at night. An employee has seen a stone turn into an old woman and starts walking towards her across the parking lot. Makes you wonder if there are bodies hidden from within the stones or they have attached themselves to the stones even. Anyone who has stolen a stone from the grounds has very promptly returned it to the site. The visitors say that they watched the stone turn into a 9 foot Native Indian within their home. The sightings that have been reported are virtually endless. When visitors come to the site they report seeing bright blue energy and some have gotten pictures of this. They complain and report coffee going cold fast, batteries draining, and going dead. Empaths and mediums have gone to the site to investigate and report that there are hundreds of free reign spirits. They have been not been able to find out if its Druids, Vikings, Native Indians, Monks, but with as much history the Stonehenge has and the years that they go back, it could be a mix of all.

BY: Lynn Reed